Gallery
NGC7000.COM
ASTRONOMY: Image Gallery
by Jean Vallières

Here is a selection of deep sky images taken from my home observatory located near Montreal, in the white zone, or 8.5 at the Bortle scale. The limiting magnitude of stars at zenith varies between 4.0 and 4.5 depending on conditions. The Milky Way is never visible.

Other images will be added as I take them. Also, some images may be eventually replaced by newer, enhanced, or in color.

Unless otherwise noted, images before 2016 were captured with a modified RCX400 telescope of 250 mm aperture and 2000 mm focal length, and images after 2016 were captured with a Maksutov-Newtonian telescope of 152 mm aperture and 731 mm focal length. They were taken with a SBIG ST-8300 monochrome CCD camera.

The images are in chronological order, most recent or the most recently processed first. Unless otherwise specified, the celestial north is upward.

Click on the links to see full-size images.
  M 57
Ring Nebula in Lyra (taken on july 20 and 25, 2017).

Version 1, RGB bin 2X2 near full field :
  30 minutes with the red filter (15 X 2 minutes);
  30 minutes  with the green filter (15 X 2 minutes);
  36 minutes  with the blue filter (12 X 3 minutes).

Version 2, L bin 1X1 + RGB bin 2X2, actual pixels cropped :
   96 minutes with the light filter (32 X 3 minutes);
   combined with the RGB of version 1.
  IC 4665
Open cluster in Serpens constellation (nicknamed the Summer Beehive),
composed of nice blue stars of magnitudes 7 to 8.

RGB exposures bin 2X2, on july 17, 2017 :
  30 minutes with the red filter (15 X 2 minutes);
  30 minutes with the green filter (15 X 2 minutes);
  30 minuteswith the blue filter (10 X 3 minutes).

First image taken with the Mak-Newton telescope on a modified Losmandy G11 mount for optical and autoguiding tests.
  Total lunar eclipse
Selection of Moon's photos during the total eclipse of September 27-28, 2015. The eclipse times are in GMT on the image.

Photos taken with a Nikon D60 camera at the focus of a SkyWatcher 80ED refractor at F/7.5. Focal length of 600 mm. (Refractor which is normally used to make the RCX400 autoguiding).

Camera adjusted to ISO 400. Exposure time of 1 second for all pictures except 1/1000 s for the partial phase.
  Eclipsed Moon on its background of stars
This picture is an addition of two images taken with a Nikon D60 camera at the focus of the SkyWatcher 80ED refractor  at F/7.5. Focal length of 600 mm:
- A first image of the eclipsed Moon taken at 22:10 EDT Sept. 27, 2015 (exposure time of 1 second at ISO 400).
- A second image taken on October 7 (10 days after the eclipse) showing the sky background exactly where the Moon was located during the eclipse. This image shows much weaker stars (magn. 13.5) than those seen in the image taken during the eclipse as it is a combination of 27 images of 20 seconds at 800 ISO.
The stars of the second image have been perfectly aligned with the weak stars visible during the eclipse using the PixInsight software. These are the real stars in the right places.
  IC 5070 in 6 colors
Part of the Pelican Nebula in the Cygnus constellation. Total exposure of approximately eight hours taken on 4 nights in August and September 2015. The celestial north is downward.
Expositions with narrowband filters (5 nm), bin 2 X 2:
   176 minutes with H alpha filter 44 X 4 minutes)
   120 minutes with OIII filter (30 X 4 minutes)
   116 minutes with SII filter (29 X 4 minutes)
Color palette: 
red = H alpha, green = SIIblue = OIII.
+ 24 minutes total expostion with each wideband RGB filter.
Processed with PixInsight and PhotoShop.
  M 65 et M 66
Galaxies in Leo (the Lion) taken on april 14-15 2015.

LRGB sub-exposures bin 2X2:
  132 minutes with light filter (44 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with red filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with green filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with blue filter (12 X 3 minutes).


  NGC 7000
Part of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000) in the Cygnus constellation.
This part is nicknamed "the wall" and corresponds to the west coast of Mexico.

Mosaic of two images taken at the end of August 2014.

For each image:
Total exposure of 120 minutes (30 x 4 minutes) with H alpha filter.
  M 92
Globular cluster in Hercules constellation (Class 4: quite concentrated).
Exposures taken at the end of June 2014.
LRGB sub-exposures:
  104 minutes with the clear filter (20 X 3 min.)+(13 X 2 min.)+(18 X 1 min.);
  60 minutes with the red filter (20 X 3 minutes);
  39 minutes with the green filter (13 X 3 minutes);
  44 minutes with the blue filter (11 X 4 minutes).
  NGC 7380
Wizard nebula. Diffuse nebula and open star cluster about 3 degrees to the east of the variable star delta Cephei. Total exposure time of 8h 20m.
Expositions with narrowband filters (5 nm), bin 2 X 2, on the end of september 2013:
   208 minutes with H alpha filter (52 X 4 minutes)
   156 minutes with OIII filter (39 X 4 minutes)
   136 minutes with SII filter (34 X 4 minutes)
Color palette: 
red = H alpha, green = SIIblue = OIII.

Notice the several pillars of material eroded by the stellar winds of the stars in the cluster.
See here how these pillars are all directed towards the center of the star cluster.
  Nova Delphini 2013
This image, taken on August 23, 2013, shows the Dolphin nova discovered on August 14, 2013.
This nova reached its maximum brightness on August 19 with a magnitude of 4.8. At the time of the photo, August 23, its magnitude had dropped to 5.6.
This nova is remarkable for its purple color, caused by the intense emission of H alpha and H beta lines of the hydrogen ejected from the star at the time of the explosion.

LRGB sub-exposures, bin 2X2, with raws of 60 s:
19 minutes with the L filter, 9 minutes each with filters R, G and B.
  M 57, IC 1296 and the supernova sn2013ev
Ring nebula in Lyra in the constellation of the same name.
Exposures taken in August and September 2013.
LRGB sub-exposures:
  120 minutes with the clear filter (40 X 3 min.);
  42 minutes with the red filter (14 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with the green filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with the blue filter (8 X 4.5 minutes).
Supernova sn2013ev (magn. 17.5) was discovered on August 8th, 2013, in the galaxy IC 1296 (magn. 14.6). See here a partially processed image sequence taken before and after the appearance of the supernova.

M 33
Triangulum galaxy in the constellation of the same name.
Exposures taken in the evenings of November 13, 14 and 15, 2012.

Focal reducer giving a length of 1540 mm for a wider field.
LRGB sub-exposures, bin 2X2:
118 minutes with light filter (59 x 120s) and 36 minutes with each of the filters R, G and B.

The galaxy M 33 contains several NGC and IC objects. Click here to identify them.

Processed with PixInsight and PhotoShop.
Asteroid 45580 Reneracine  in the constellation of Aries.
Photo taken in the evening of November 15 between 22h 18 and 23h 00. Total exposure of 40 minutes (20 x 120s). The field is approximately 40 'X 30'. With an Astrophysics focal reducer, the focal length is reduced from 2000 mm to 1540 mm.

This asteroid was discovered by Denis Bergeron on February 10, 2000 and was named Reneracine in honor of Dr. René Racine, founder and first director of the Mont Mégantic Observatory.

The image also contains two other asteroids and was processed with the CometAlignment module in the PixInsight software.
NGC 6960
Part of the Veil Nebula near the star 52 Cygni.
Sub-exposures taken in September and October 2012. Celestial North towards left side.

Narrowband exposures: H alpha = 200 minutes (50 X 4 min.);  OIII = 152 minutes (38 X 4 min.).
Color palette:
  Red = 100% H alpha
  Green = 70% OIII + 30% H alpha
  Blue = 100% OIII

Processed with PisInsight and PhotoShop.
M 13
Hercules Globular Cluster in Hercules constellation.
Sub-exposures taken in the nights of June 13-14 and 14-15 2012.

LRGB sub-exposures:
  90 minutes with the clear filter (22 X 3 min.)+(18 X 1 min.)+(18 X 20s).
  36 minutes with the red filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with the green filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with the blue filter (8 X 4.5 minutes).
  Luminance = (55% clear)+(15% red)+(15% green)+(15% blue).
M 51
Whirlpool Galaxy in the Canes Venatici constellation.
Sub-exposures taken in the nights of May 17 and 23, 2012.
Celestial North is downward.

LRGB sub-exposures:
  96 minutes with the clear filter (32 X 3 minutes); See one of the raw 3 minutes images HERE.
  36 minutes with the red filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with the green filter (12 X 3 minutes);
  36 minutes with the blue filter (8 X 4.5 minutes).
First image processed with the PixInsight software.
NGC 7635
The Bubble Nebula in Cassiopeia constellation.
Sub-exposures taken in the nights of November 15 and 21, and December 12, 2011..
Celestial North is downward.

Image taken with a 5 nm H alpha narrowband filter, and with RGB filters to get better colors for the stars.
H alpha : 128 minutes (32 X 4 minutes).
Red : 12 minutes (24 X 30 s).
Green : 15 minutes (30 X 30 s).
Blue : 15 minutes (20 X 45 s).
COSMOS 1484
Track left by the satellite COSMOS 1484 on one of the raw images taken with the red filter near 17h52, December 12, 2011 (30 second exposure) for use in the picture above.

See here for a map of the path of the satellite, generated on the site Heavens-Above. Clearly, at 17h52, the satellite, of magnitude 2.5, was passing right in the region of the Bubble nebula.

It's a pure coincidence that the path is visible on this image since the field of the CCD is only about 30 minutes of arc.
NGC 7331
Galaxy in Pegasus constellation and some dimmer galaxies.
Sub-exposures taken in the nights of October 28 and 30, 2011.
Celestial North is towards the right side.


Exposure time of 196 minutes with a clear filter (49 X 4 minutes).
M27 in colors
The Dumbbell planetary nebula in Vulpecula constellation.
Sub-exposures taken in the nights of August 22, 26 and 30, and Sept. 25, 2011.

Image taken with 5 nm narrowband filters (H alpha, OIII and SII), and with RGB filters to get better colors for the stars.

Red = (75 minutes in H alpha (25 X 3 minutes)) + (16 minutes in red (32 X 30 s))
Green = (87 minutes in SII (29 X 3 minutes)) + (17 minutes in green (34 X 30 s))
Blue = (60 minutes in OIII (20 X 3 minutes)) + (24 minutes in blue (32 X 45 s))
M27 in H alpha
2011/08/22
Image taken with a 5 nm H alpha narrowband filter, used as one of the color layers for the picture above.

With a bandwidth of 5 nm, this filter cuts at least 95% of light pollution but transmits the H alpha emission line emitted by M27.

Exposure time of 75 minutes in H alpha (25 X 3 minutes).
IC 5070 in H alpha
Pelican nebula in Cygnus constellation.
2011/09/20

Exposure time of 123 minutes with a H alpha filter (41 X 3 minutes).
M 16 with narrowband filters
Eagle Nebula in Serpens constellation
2011/07/23, 2011/07/27, 2011/08/02, 2011/08/04. New processing in June 2012.

Exposure time: H alpha (55 X 3 minutes), OIII (13 X 3 min.), SII (15 X 3 min.).
Image shown with Hubble palette: red = SII, green = H alpha, blue = OIII.
See here with another palette: red = H alpha, green = SII, blue = OIII.
In each case, the luminance is done with H alpha exposure.
As seen from my observatory, this nebula was drowned in light pollution only 30° above the southern horizon (towards Montreal). Hot, humid summer heat wave. It was 22C to 26C during the exposures.
NGC 891
Edge-on galaxy in the constellation Andromeda
Exposure in November 2010. New processing in June 2012 with PixInsight.

Exposure time:
  75 minutes without filter (25 X 3 minutes) bin 2X2
  81 minutes with a red filter (27 X 3 minutes) bin 3X3
  80 minutes with a blue filter (16 X 5 minutes) bin 3X3
  green synthetised = (R + B) / 2
M 15
Globular cluster in Pegasus.
October 22, 2010

Exposure time = 24,5 minutes (7 X 180s ) + (7 X 30s).
Photo taken without filter.
See also: